75 G/A Polymorphism of Apolipoprotein A1 Gene Promoter Region in Normal Pregnant Women and Patients With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

LI Ruoyu, BAI Huai, GUAN Linbo, LIU Xinghui, FAN Ping, ZHOU Mi, WU Yujie, WANG Yufeng, ZHU Zhengting, WANG Guoyu, WANG

Abstract

To investigate the -75 G/A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of apolipoprotein A1 gene (apoA1) and its association with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant women and to provide references for the exploration in the molecular genetic basis of GDM.Methods A total of 626 GDM patients and 1022 normal pregnant women, ie, the controls, were included in the study. The genotyping of apoA1 -75 G/A polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and glucose (Glu) were measured by enzymatic methods. Plasma insulin (INS) was measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. The protein levels of apoA1 and apoB were measured by the turbidimetric immunoassay.Results Allele frequencies of G and A were 0.718 and 0.282 in the GDM group and 0.713 and 0.287 in the control group, respectively. Distribution of the genotype frequencies was found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both the GDM and control groups. There was no significant difference in the frequencies of alleles G and A and the genotypes of apoA1 -75 G/A polymorphism between the GDM and the control group (P>0.05). In the GDM group, the carriers with the genotype AA were associated with significantly higher levels of TC, HDL-C, and apoA1 than those with genotypes GG and GA did (all P<0.05). After the GDM patients were divided into obese and non-obese subgroups, the genotype-related apoA1 variation was observed only in obese patients, while the genotype-related TC and HDL-C variations were evident in non-obese patients (P<0.05). In the control group, carriers of genotypes AA and GA had higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and HDL-C than the carriers of genotype GG did (all P<0.05). Carriers of genotypes AA had significantly lower Glu levels than carriers of genotypes GG and GA did (P<0.05). The control subjects were further divided into subgroups according to their body mass index (BMI). Analysis of the subgroups showed that AA carriers were associated with higher SBP levels in the obese control women only, while lower Glu levels were evident in both obese and non-obese control women.Conclusion These results suggest that -75 G/A polymorphism in the apoA1 gene is not associated with GDM. However, the genetic variation is closed associated with the plasma apoA1, HDL-C, and TC levels in GDM patients and plasma HDL-C, Glu, and SBP levels in the control subjects. The apoA1 variant-associated lipids and SBP variation is BMI dependent in both groups.

Keywords: Apolipoprotein A1 gene,  Diabetes, gestational,  Polymorphism, single nucleotide,  Lipids,  Glucose

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