Research Progress in the Molecular Regulatory Mechanisms of Alveolar Bone Restoration

WEI Jieya, XU Siqun, ZHOU Xuedong, XIE Jing


Alveolar bone, the protruding portion of the maxilla and the mandible that surrounds the roots of teeth, plays an important role in tooth development, eruption, and masticatory performance. In oral inflammatory diseases, including apical periodontitis, periodontitis, and peri-implantitis, alveolar bone defects cause the loosening or loss of teeth, impair the masticatory function, and endanger the physical and mental health of patients. However, alveolar bone restoration is confronted with great clinical challenges due to the the complicated effect of the biological, mechanical, and chemical factors in the oral microenvironment. An in-depth understanding of the underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms will contribute to the exploration of new targets for alveolar bone restoration. Recent studies have shown that Notch, Wnt, Toll-like receptor (TLR), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways regulate the proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and autophagy of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes, periodontal ligament cells, macrophages, and adaptive immune cells, modulate the expression of inflammatory mediators, affect the balance of the receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand/receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/RANK/OPG) system, and ultimately participate in alveolar bone restoration. Additionally, alveolar bone restoration involves AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT), Hippo/YAP, Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT), and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling pathways. However, current studies have failed to construct mature molecular regulatory networks for alveolar bone restoration. There is an urgent need for further research on the molecular regulatory mechanisms of alveolar bone restoration by using new technologies such as single-cell transcriptome sequencing and spatial transcriptome sequencing.


Keywords: Alveolar bone,  Apical periodontitis,  Periodontitis,  Peri-implantitis,  Signaling pathway,  Molecular regulatory mechanisms


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