A Review of High-altitude Hypoxia Adaptation and Hypoxic Solid Tumor

WU Qi-sheng, LIU Pei-shen, YANG Cui-ping, CHEN Yong-bin

Abstract

Historically, the Cambrian explosion was a major life evolution event caused by changes of natural environmental oxygen concentration. The use of oxygen was part of the basic survival instinct of higher life, which evolved a complex regulation system in response to variant levels of oxygen concentration. Hypoxia is one of the typical environmental characteristics in plateau areas. After long-term natural selection in hypoxic conditions, numerous species living in plateau areas have evolved unique mechanisms adapted to hypoxia. Recent studies have found that there are some similarities in adaptation to hypoxia between the animals in highland and different types of human solid tumor cells. Herein, we will summarize recent findings about the hypoxia adaptation evolution in high-altitude animals and the characteristics of hypoxic solid tumors, especially the reactive oxygen species responses in hypoxic solid tumors. We believe that deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in hypoxia adaptation in highland will facilitate the identification of new genes or biomarkers critical for research on hypoxic solid tumors in the future.

 

Keywords: Hypoxia adaptation, Highland environment, Oxidative stress, Reactive oxygen species, Hypoxic solid tumor

 

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