Analysis of the Development Mechanism of Cytokine Storm in Severe Burn Patients Complicated with Infection

TANG Yuan-yang, LOU Gao-xing, HE Wei-feng


In the early stage of infection in severe burn patients, the killing function of the natural immune cells is continuously low, which causes the immune system to continuously and compensatorily secrete a large amount of cytokines to improve the ability to resist bacterial infection. Once the cytokine secretion is out of control, a cytokine storm will form. In the late stage of severe burn infection, the bone marrow mobilization caused by continuous acute myelodysplasia will be exhausted, the level of immune response will be low, and the secretion of anti-inflammatory factors promoting repair will be increased, which will lead to immune suppression. Cytokine storm after burn infection is caused by excessive proinflammatory stimulation, inadequate inflammatory regulation, or a combination of the two. From the perspective of immunology, this review will briefly summarize the changing process of immune response against pathogenic bacteria after severe burn infection, cytokine storm in the early stage of severe burn infection and the mechanism of occurrence and transformation of immunosuppression in the late stage of severe burn infection. We suggest that future research direction from the following aspects: Mechanism of low bacterial killing function of innate immune cells after severe burns; The mechanism by which acute myeloid hyperplasia leads to myeloid inhibitory cells (MDSC) and nucleated erythrocytosis during the development of cytokine storms; The key regulatory mechanism between macrophage phagocytic dysfunction and cytokine hyperactivity; The role and key regulatory mechanism of destruction of the dynamic balance of M1/M2 macrophages and effector/regulatory T cells in triggering immune suppression.


Keywords: Burn infection, Cytokine storm, Immunosuppression


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